Articles by Jeffrey Sachs

Topic: Essays

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"Rethinking Macroeconomics." Capitalism and Society: Vol. 4 : Iss. 3, Article 3. [Download as PDF]


"The Importance of Investment Promotion in the Poorest Countries," in World Investment Prospects to 2010: Boom or Backlash?, Economist Intelligence Unit and Columbia Program on International Investment, New York, 2006.
[Download in PDF format]


"Understanding African Poverty: Beyond the Washington Consensus to the Millennium Development Goals Approach," with Gordon McCord and Wing Thye Woo, in Africa in the World Economy, Jan Joost Teunissen and Age Akkerman (eds.), FONDAD: The Hague, 2005.
[Download chapter in PDF format]


"A Letter from Africa: Confronting our Humanity in an AIDS-Ravaged World," in Pandemic: Facing AIDS, Umbrage Editions : New York, 2003.


"Reducing the Vulnerability to Natural Disasters: Hurricane Mitch and Central America," with Juan Carlos Barahona, Eduardo Doryan and Felipe B. Larrain Economic Development in Central America, Vol. II: Structural Reform edited by Felipe B. Larrain.  Harvard University Press, 2001.
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"The External-Debt Problem in Central America: Honduras, Nicaragua, and the HIPC Initiative," with Gerardo Esquivel and Felipe B. Larrain in Economic Development in Central America, Vol. I: Growth and Internationalization, edited by Felipe B. Larrain.  Harvard University Press, 2001.
(also HIID Development Discussion Paper no. 645, August 1998)
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"The Debate on Understanding China's Economic Growth," (with Wing Thye Woo) in Eric Maskin and Andras Simonovits (eds.), Planning, Shortage, and Transformation: Essays in Honor of Janos Kornai, MIT, 2000.

"Notes on a New Sociology of Economic Development" in Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington (eds). New York: Basic Books, 2000.


The Global Competitiveness Report 1999, (co-editor) World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland 1999.

  • "The Year in Review," with Andrew Warner

The Asia Competitiveness Report 1999, (co-editor) World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland 1999.

  • "A Plan for Action," with Wing Thye Woo
  • "The Asian Financial Crisis: what happened, and what is to be done," with Wing Thye Woo; republished in Spanish as "Reflexiones sobre la crisis asiatica," Cuadernos del CERI No. 7, Centro Espa-ol de Relaciones Internacionales, Madrid, September 1999.

Role of Law and Legal Institutions in Asian Economic Development 1960-1995, senior advisor with Hal S. Scott to Katharina Pistor and Philip A. Wellons for Asian Development Bank.

"The Case for Regional Public Goods," with Lisa Cook, in Global Public Goods--International Cooperation in the 21st Century, Kaul, Grunberg, and Stern (eds.), a UN publication, Oxford University Press: New York, 1999.
[Download chapter as PDF]


The Africa Competitiveness Report 1998, (co-editor) World Economic Forum, Geneva. Switzerland 1998.

  • "Executive Summary" with Sara E. Sievers
  • "Growth in Africa" with Sara E. Sievers
  • "FDI in Africa" with Sara E. Sievers

"External Debt, Structural Adjustment and Economic Growth," in International Monetary and Financial Issues for the 1990's, Volume IX. Conference volume for United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 1998.


"Fundamental Sources of Long Run Growth," with Andrew Warner, presented at 1997 AEA meetings in New Orleans, published in Proceedings volume.
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The Rule of Law and Economic Reform in Russia, edited with Katharina Pistor, The John M. Olin Critical Issues Series, Westview Press, 1997.

"Globalization is the Driving Force for Growth in the U.S.," in The Rising Tide: The Leading Minds of Business and Economics Chart a Course Toward Higher Growth and Prosperity, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997.

"Ukraine's Painful Economic Transition," ACE: Analysis of Current Events, Vol. 9, No. 8, August 1997.
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"Chinese Economic Growth: Explanations and the Tasks Ahead," with Wing Thye Woo, in Joint Economic Committee of the United States Congress, China's Economic Future: Challenges to U.S. Policy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1996.
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"Emerging Markets and Foreign Aid," in Emerging Markets and International Development: Options for U.S. Foreign Policy, National Planning Association Report, No. 282, 1996

"Financial Crises in Emerging Markets: The Lessons from 1995," with Andres Velasco and Aaron Tornell, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 2, 1996. [Download as PDF]

"Lessons from Taiwan for Post-Communist Transition: Another Look," with Tianlun Jian, Business and the Contemporary World, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996.
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"Achieving Rapid Growth: The Road Ahead for Egypt," Distinguished Lecture Series 3, published by The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, 1996. Click here to order this piece from ECES.
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"Why Russia Failed to Stabilize," in Russian Economic Reform at Risk, edited by Anders Aslund, Pinter:London, 1995.
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"Shock Therapy in Poland: Perspectives of Five Years," The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Vol. 16, University of Utah, 1995.
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"Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," with Andrew Warner, presented at Brookings Panel on April 7, 1995.  Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 1, 1995.
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"Economies in Transition: Some Aspects of Environmental Policy," in Economic Instruments for Sustainable Development. Bedich Moldan (ed.), Workshop Proceeding, January 12-14, 1995, Prhonice, Czech Republic, Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic.
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"Trade and Jobs in U.S. Manufacturing," with Howard Shatz, in Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 1, 1994, and in Economic Policy, ed. Paul Whiteley, Gloucester, England: Elgar Publishing. [Download as PDF]

Comment on "Economic Recovery, Growth and Policies: 'Gradualism' in the Japanese Context" by Juro Teranishi, in Economic Policy 19 (Supplement), December 1994. [Download as PDF]

"Increased IMF Intervention Would Strengthen the Republics' Economies," in The Breakup of the Soviet Union: Opposing Viewpoints, David Bender & Bruno Leone, Series Editors, Opposing Viewpoints Series, Greenhaven Press: San Diego, 1994.

"Political Independence and Economic Reform in Slovenia," with Boris Pleskovic, in The Transition in Eastern Europe: Volume 1, (edited by Sachs, Froot, and Blanchard), NBER Conference Volume, NBER and University of Chicago Press, 1994.

"India's Unfinished Reform Agenda," presented at ICRIER, New Delhi, Aug. 23, 1994. Published in Distinguished Author Seminar Series on "Structural Adjustment and Policy Reforms: Perspectives from International Experiences."


"An Update on Reform in Eastern Europe and Russia," China Economic Review, Volume 4, Number 2. 1993.
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Introduction to Paper Tigers and Minotaurs: The Politics of Venezuela's Economic Reforms, by Moises Naim, A Carnegie Endowment Book, 1993.

"Comments on 'The Chinese and Eastern European Routes to Reform' by Alan Gelb, Gary Jefferson, and Inderjit Singh," in NBER Macroeconomics Annual Conference Volume, NBER 1993.

"Western Financial Assistance and Russia's Reforms," in Making Markets, S. Islam and M. Mandelbaum (eds.), New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1993.


"Privatization in Russia : Some Lessons from Eastern Europe," in Soumitra Sharma (ed.), Development Policy (London: St. Martin's Press, Inc.), 1992.
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"Transition from a Planned Economy to a Market Economy," in Social and Ethical Aspects of Economics: A Colloquium in the Vatican, 1992.

"The Grand Bargain," in The Post-Soviet Economy: Soviet and Western Perspectives, Anders Aslund (ed.), (London: Punter Publ.), 1992.


"Efficient Debt Reduction," in Dealing with the Debt Crisis, Ishrat Husain and Ishac Diwan (eds.), A World Bank Syposium, Washington, DC., 1989.

"Bolivia's Economic Crisis," with Juan Antonio Morales, in J. Sachs (ed.), Foreign Debt and Economic Performance, National Bureau of Economic Research and University of Chicago Press, 1989; and Developing Country Debt and Economic Performance: Country Studies--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, Vol 2, University of Chicago, 1990. (previously NBER Working Paper 2620) [Download as PDF]

"O Futuro da Crise das Dividas na America Latina," in Nova Era da Economia Mundial, Norman Gall et al., Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial, Pioneira: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1989.

"Efficient Debt Reduction," in Dealing with the Debt Crisis, Ishrat Husain and Ishac Diwan (eds.), A World Bank Symposium, Washington, DC, 1989.

"Strengthening IMF Programs in Highly Indebted Countries," in The International Monetary Fund in a Multipolar World: Pulling Together, Catherine Gwin, Richard E. Feinberg and contributors, U.S.-Third World Policy Perspectives, No. 13, Overseas Development Council, Tranaction Books, New Brunswick (USA) and Oxford (UK), 1989.


"Comprehensive Debt Retirement: The Bolivian Example," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 2, 1988.
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"Global Adjustments to a Shrinking U.S. Trade Deficit," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 2, 1988.
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"Social Conflict and Populist Policies in Latin America" prepared for conference on "Markets, Institutions, and Cooperations: Labour Relations and Economic Performance," Venice, Italy, October 1988, in R. Brunetta and C. Dell-Aringa (eds.), Labour Relations and Economic Performance, MacMillan Press, 1989. Spanish translation in Revista de Economica Politica, Vol. 10, No. 1(37), Jan-March, 1990, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and republished in Luiz Carlos Bresser Pereira, Populismo Economico (Sao Paulo: Livraria Nobel S.A.) 1991.

"International Policy Coordination: The Case of the Developing Country Debt Crisis," in Martin Feldstein, International Economic Cooperation, National Bureau of Economic Research and University of Chicago Press, 1988. [Download as PDF]

"Sources of Macroeconomic Imbalances in the World Economy: A Simulation Approach," with N. Roubini, in Suzuki (ed.), Toward a World of Economic Stability: Optimal Monetary Framework and Policy, Bank of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1988.


"U.S. Commercial Banks and the Developing-Country Debt Crisis," with Harry Huizinga, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1987:2.
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"The Effects of OECD Macroeconomic Policies on the Developing Countries," with Warwick McKibbin, presented at World Bank Conference, in conference volume, 1985, and in Seoul Journal of Economics, 1985.

"High Unemployment in Europe: Diagnosis and Policy Implications," in Unemployment in Europe, C-H Siven (ed.), proceedings of Yxtaholm Conference of September, 1985, SAF, Stockholm, Sweden.
(previously NBER Working Paper 1830)

"Is There a Case for More Managed Exchange Rates," in The Dollar--Recent Developments, Outlooks, and Policy Options, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 1985. [Download as PDF]

"Borrowing Abroad: The Debtor's Perspective," with Richard Cooper, in Cuddington and Smith (eds.), International Debt and the Developing Countries, World Bank Symposium, 1985.
(previously NBER Working Paper 1427)


"Theoretical Issues in International Borrowing," Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 54, 1984 (published in Spanish translation in Estudios Economicos, July-December, 1986). Reprinted in Graham Bird and P. Nicholas Snowden (eds.), International Debt, Volume I, Edward Elgar Publ. Ltd., U.K., 1995.
(previously NBER Working Paper 1189)

"Macroeconomic Policy Coordination Among the Industrial Economies," with Gilles Oudiz, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 1, 1984.
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"La Politique Budgetaire et le Taux de Change Reel," with Charles Wyplosz, Annales de l'Insee, Vol. 53, pp.63-92, January-March, 1984. French version of "Reala Exchange Rate Effects of Fiscal Policy," 1983. [Download as PDF]


"Comment: The Economic Consequences of Mrs. Thatcher (Buiter and Miller)," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 2, 1983.
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"Comment: IMF Conditionality in Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom (by Spaventa, Silva Lopes, and Crawford)," in J. Williamson (ed), IMF Conditionality, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, 1983.


"The Oil Shocks and Macroeconomic Adjustment in the United States," European Economic Review 18, 1982. [Download paper as PDF]

"The Current Account in the Macroeconomic Adjustment Process," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 84, No. 2, 1982. [Download paper as PDF]

"Comment: Policy Analysis with Econometric Models (by Sims)," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Issue 1, 1982. [Download paper as PDF]

"Energy and Resource Allocation: A Dynamic Model of the Dutch Disease," with Michael Bruno, published in special issue of Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 49, No. 159, 845-859, for the Cambridge University Conference on Unemployment, July, 1982. (previously NBER Working Paper 852) [Download paper as PDF]


"The Supply Approach to Oil Shocks and the Slowdown in Japanese Economic Growth," Toko Keizai Shinpo Sha (The Oriental Economist), 1981.


"Comment: International Adjustment with Wage Rigidity (by Branson and Rotemberg)," European Economic Review, 1980. [Download paper as PDF]

"The Changing Cyclical Behavior of Wages and Prices, 1890-1976," American Economic Review, Vol. 70, No. 1, March 1980. (previously NBER Working Paper 304) [Download paper as PDF]


"Wages, Profits, and Macroeconomic Adjustment: A Comparative Study," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, pp. 269-319, Issue 2, 1979. Reprodoced in Recent Developments in Macroeconomics, Edmund Phelps (ed.), Edward Elgar Publ. Ltd., Glasgow. [Download paper as PDF]


"Wages, Flexible Exchange Rates, and Macroeconomic Policy," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. XCIV, No. 4, pp. 731-748, June 1980. [Download paper as PDF]